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Alessi and Petry, 2013

Alessi & Petry evaluated the use of basic cell phone technology integration into CM. Participants were recruited based on a desire to reduce alcohol consumption, but were not in or seeking treatment. Participants were given breathalyzers and cell phones with video recording capabilities and were then randomized into a CM group and a non-CM group. The CM group was given escalating vouchers for on-time negative alcohol tests. Researchers manually texted participants to request breathalyzer tests, which participants performed using the phone’s built-in video recording and text message sending features (no custom software was developed). Results showed that, in addition to being well-received by patients, the incentive procedure cut the number of drinking days in half -- 21.8 days in the control group versus 10.8 in the CM group, while also reducing number of drinks per month and drinks per drinking day.

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Campbell et al., 2014

Campbell et al. evaluated the computerized Therapeutic Education System (TES). TES included motivational incentives (CM) and automated the calculation of rewards due to each patient, but still required manual drug testing and distribution of rewards. Participants from 10 outpatient treatment centers were randomized into 2 groups: 12 weeks of treatment as usual or 12 weeks of treatment plus TES. Results showed that over 12 weeks, TES reduced dropouts by 28% and increased abstinence by 62%.

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reynolds et al., 2015

Reynolds et al. studied adolescent cigarette smokers from Appalachia who were attempting to quit smoking. Investigators used a computer program called motiv8 which utilized webcams on personal computers to enable patients to record a video of their drug tests (using carbon monoxide detectors) from their homes, obviating the need for manual, in-person drug tests. The software still required a pre-set schedule for drug tests (twice per day with an 8-hour interval in between) and manual prize distribution. Results showed that CM intervention nearly cut breath CO levels in half for the treatment group relative to the controls.

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Dutra et al., 2008

In 2008, Dutra et al. conducted a meta-analytic review of various psychosocial treatments targeted at substance abuse. They found that "overall, the highest effect size estimates were obtained for contingency management approaches" when compared to other modes of psychosocial treatments.